MANAGEMENT AND HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT
Mangers perform various functions, but one of the most important and least understood aspects of their job is proper utilization of people. Research reveals that worker performance is closely related to motivation; thus keeping employees motivated is an essential component of good management in a business context, motivation refers to the stimulus that direct the behavior of workers toward the company goals. In order to motivated workers to achieve company goals, managers must beware of their needs.
Many managers believe workers will be motivated to achieve organizational goals by satisfying their fundamental needs for material survival. These needs include a good salary, safe working conditions and job security. While absence of these factors results in poor morale and dissatisfaction, studies have shown that their presence result only in maintenance of existing attitudes and work performance. Although important, salary, working conditions, and job security do not provide the primary motivation for many workers in highly industrialized societies, especially at the professional or technical levels.
ACQUISITION OF CAPITAL
A corporation needs capital in order to start up, operate, and expands its business. The process of acquiring this capital is known as financing. A corporation uses two basic types of financing and debt financing. Equity financing refers to funds that are invested by owners of the corporation. Debt financing, on the other hand, refers to funds that borrowed from sources outside the corporation.
Equity financing (obtaining owners funds) can be exemplified by the sale of corporate stock. In this type of transaction, the corporation sells units of ownership known as share of stock. Each share entitles the purchaser to a certain amount of ownership. For example, if someone buys 100 shares of stock from Ford Motor Company, that person has purchased 100 shares worth of Ford’s resources, materials, plants, production, and profits. The person who purchases shares of stock is known as a stockholder or shareholder.
THE BALANCE SHEET
Financial statements are the final product of the accounting process. They provide information on the financial condition of a company. The balance sheet, one type of financial statement, provides a summary of what a company owns and what it owes on one particular day.
Assets represent everything of value that is owned by a business, such as property, equipment, and accounts receivable. On the other hand, liabilities are the debts that a company owes-for example, to suppliers and banks. If liabilities are subtracted from assets (assets-liabilities) the amount remaining is the owners share of a business. This is known as owners’ or stockholders equity.
AN ACCOUNTING OVERVIEW
Accounting is frequently called the “language of business” because of its ability to communicate financial information abaout an organization. Various interested parties, such as managers, potential investors, creditors, and the government, depend on a company’s accounting system to help them make informed financial decisions. An affective accounting system, therefore, must include accurate collecting, recording, classifying, summarizing, interpreting, and reporting of information on the financial status of an irganization.
In order to achieve a standardized system, the accounting process follows accounting principles and rules. Regardless of the type of business or the amount of money involved, common procedures for handling and presenting financial information are used. Incoming money (revenues) and outgoing money (expenditures) are carefully monitored, and transaction are summarized in financial statements, which reflect the major financial activities of an organization.
A company often becomes involved in international trade by exchanging goods or services with another country-importing raw materials it may need for production or exporting finished products to a foreign market. Establishing these trade relationships is the first step in the development of a multinational business. At this stage, however the corporation’s emphasis is still on the domestic market. As trade expands, the corporation’s dealing with companies or people outside the “home country” of that corporation increase.
The corporation then begins to view the whole world as a base for production and marketing operations. The next step in the development of a multinational business is focusing on the world market. The company may establish a foreign assembly plant, engage in contract manufacturing, or build a foreign manufacturing company or subsidiary. Therefore, a multinational corporation is a company that is primarily based in one country and has production and marketing activities in foreign countries.